The diagnosis of chlamydia infection involves sampling of the urethral discharge in males or cervical secretions in females, or sending a urine specimen, which is simple and non-invasive. Samples are analysed using PCR technology.
Genital warts are a sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner.
Gonorrhoea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual symptoms in men are burning sensation with urination and penile discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women, if gonorrhoea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease.
Herpes is a contagious viral infection that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Infection of this virus causes blisters and sores anywhere on the skin especially around the mouth, nose, genitals and buttocks. Although generally a mild infection, they can be irritating because the blisters are itchy, painful and can recur periodically.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents infection with certain species of human papillomavirus associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers.
Post exposure prophylaxis with a course of anti-retroviral drugs reduces the risk of seroconversion after events with high risk of exposure to HIV (eg unprotected anal or vaginal sex with a high-risk partner, needlestick injuries, or sharing needles).
Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are asymptomatic. Regular screening for STIs is recommended if you are sexually active and have had any high risk sexual activity. These may involve blood tests, urine tests as well as swabs taken from various parts of the body.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. It infects the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. One usually gets syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also pass from mother to baby during pregnancy.